Category: Vietnam Travel Guide

Domestic ferment with Europe at war

Domestic ferment with Europe at war

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In 1911, inspired by the Chinese revolution, Phan Boi Chau organized the Vietnamese Restoration Society (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi) in southern China and endeavored to rebuild a network of activists in Tonkin. The only results of  this were some assassinations and bombings in 1913, which attracted the atten- tion of French security agents who […]

Retrospective

The 1908 disturbances and their sequel

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In Quang Nam, the operations of Phan Boi Chau’s Duy Tan Society, the modern- izing schools inspired by Phan Chu Trinh, heavy French demands for corvée labor  to exploit coal mines, the irresponsible behavior of Vietnamese magistrates, and a relatively large peasant population in distress all overlapped and, in March 1908, combined to initiate three […]

Formation of the Second Republic of Vietnam

Franco-Vietnamese Colonial Relations

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Intellectuals respond to the colonial regime By the turn of the century, many educated Vietnamese were endeavoring to think their way through the events of the French conquest, aiming to arrive at some vision of a future for themselves or for their country. Not all Vietnamese were concerned with ideas about a Vietnamese country. The […]

Formation of French Indochina

Formation of French Indochina

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A new policy initiative was needed to sustain the colonial project in Vietnam. The man selected to implement this was Paul Bert (1833–1886), a man of science, professor of physiology, and staunch anti-cleric who entered politics as a follower of Gambetta, for whom he served as Minister of Education. He arrived at Hue in April […]

Formation of the Second Republic of Vietnam

The French take Hue

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King Tu Duc died in July 1883. During the last year of his life, whatever authority he still may have had was ebbing away as Rivière waited in Hanoi, new Qing armies crossed the border, and Vietnamese officials in the north prepared to resist the French despite their king’s passivity. Tu Duc seldom stirred from […]

Retrospective

The Sino-French War

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By the end of the 1870s, the number of Frenchmen, both in Cochinchina and in France, who had given up on hopes of establishing a working relationship with Tu Duc was growing rapidly. Furthermore, the lack of effective authority in the north aroused French fears of intervention by China or by another European power. Advocates […]

Law and language in Cochinchina

Law and language in Cochinchina

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The French naval authorities in Cochinchina were perplexed most of all by efforts to administer justice. The pre-French legal system had been administered by magistrates with a relatively high level of educational achievement in the system of examinations used by the Hue court to staff officialdom. These men were not only conversant with the law […]

Post-treaty disorder in the north

Post-treaty disorder in the north

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With the Treaty of 1874, the French appeared to have gained what Dupuis had initially sought. Treaty provisions opened the Red River, as well as the ports of Qui Nhon, Hanoi, and Hai Phong, to international commerce. French consuls were to be stationed in these ports with judicial prerogatives over any litigation involving Europeans and […]

Retrospective

The Treaty of 1874

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During the late 1860s and early 1870s, Tu Duc, having lost possession of what had become French Cochinchina in the south, also lost control over the upland hinterland of the Red River plain, while his authority in the lowlands shrank to a few garrisoned administrative centers, primarily Hanoi, Son Tay, Bac Ninh, Hai Duong, Hon […]

Formation of French Cochinchina

Formation of French Cochinchina

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The inability to pacify the Red River plain and to eradicate the appeal of Le dynastic pretenders was a great weakness of the Hue monarchy and prevented concentration of the country’s resources against the French at Saigon. The Le Duy Cu rebellion of 1854–1855 in which Cao Ba Quat had played a part was followed […]